High blood pressure: causes of hypertension

Causes of high pressure

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Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. It is characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure to 140/90 or more. It can occur at any age, but is more often diagnosed after 35-40 years. It is found in 40% of people of the older age group. Of these, 58% are men, 42% of patients are women.

Why hypertension is dangerous

High blood pressure significantly increases the load on the cardiovascular system. The risk of rupture of cerebral vessels increases, which is accompanied by the occurrence of hemorrhagic stroke. The disease also contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and intravascular thrombi, which eventually causes myocardial infarction, trophic disorders in tissues, brain ischemia.

Episodic high blood pressure, the causes of which are external influences (physical activity, stress) is less dangerous. However, against the background of existing atherosclerosis, it can become a factor in the development of vascular embolism. In addition, there is a risk of damage to the wall of cerebral arteries with the formation of cerebral hematoma. Frequent or constant increase in blood pressure leads to the development of a secondarily shrunken kidney, hypertrophy of the left ventricle, heart failure.

High blood pressure: causes

The hemodynamic basis of the disease is an increase in the tone of the arteries and arterioles. The causes of high blood pressure in women and men with primary hypertension do not differ. It occurs under the influence of two groups of factors:

Neurogenic. Hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system responsible for the regulation of vascular tone occurs.

Humoral. The tension of the vascular wall changes under the influence of catecholamines and other biologically active substances.

On a note: the deep causes of hypertension have not been fully elucidated. It remains unknown why there is an increase in the activity of the SNS, the release of vasoconstrictive hormones. The existing treatment is not aimed at eliminating the main etiological factor, but at relieving the emerging symptoms.

High blood pressure often occurs in the morning. The reason for this is the physiological hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin system and the cessation of the effect of antihypertensive drugs taken by the patient in the evening. To prevent such phenomena, an increased dose of ACE inhibitors is prescribed.

Causes of high pressure surges with its subsequent decrease without medical intervention: mental stress, stress, fatigue, physical exertion, hyperthermia, intake of vasoconstrictors (coffee, tea, energy drinks). Such forms of hypertension occur in young people. The causes of high blood pressure in men are often smoking and alcohol abuse.

Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension is considered to occur against the background of other somatic diseases. There are the following forms of hypertension:

renal: occurs with pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, amyloidosis, tuberculosis, tumors, injuries, congenital kidney abnormality;

vasorenal: the cause of high blood pressure is damage to the renal vessels, in particular atherosclerosis, aneurysm, fibromuscular dysplasia;

endocrine: hypo- and hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, adrenal cortex hyperplasia, Itsenko-Cushing’s disease;

centrogenic: brain tumors, encephalitis, stroke, porphyria, intoxication with heavy metal salts;

medicinal: blood pressure increases when taking corticosteroid hormones, sympathomimetics, cyclosporines, monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

The causes of increased lower pressure (isolated diastolic hypertension) are mainly renal. Pathology occurs at a young age and is difficult to correct. Isolated systolic form of the disease is more often diagnosed in women over 60 years of age. It can be caused by a decrease in the elasticity of the vascular wall of the aorta.

Why does a child have high blood pressure

The blood pressure level in children is more strongly associated with the influence of the central nervous system than in adults. Therefore, hypertension often develops under the influence of psychoemotional stress. Also, the disease may have an essential (primary) nature or be somatic, caused by other pathological processes.

Note: when measuring blood pressure by a medic, the possibility of “white coat hypertension” (an increase in blood pressure due to excitement provoked by the presence of a doctor) should be taken into account.

Arterial hypertension, the causes of which are discussed above, requires a thorough examination. With secondary varieties of pathology, a complete cure is possible after correction of the main process. Essential hypertension is considered incurable. Continuous drug lowering of blood pressure is used. With the refusal of therapy, the patient’s life expectancy is significantly reduced.