arterial hypertension

What is Arterial Hypertension?

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Arterial hypertension is a disease characterized by persistent high blood pressure.
What is Arterial Hypertension?

Causes of arterial hypertension

Essential hypertension. This condition is otherwise called hypertension. The causes of this disease remain unclear. The influence of the following factors is assumed:

  • heredity,
  • smoking,
  • alcohol consumption,
  • atherosclerosis,
  • obesity, etc.

Secondary hypertension. This syndrome always has a cause, for example:

  • kidney disease
  • hypercortisolism,
  • generalized anxiety disorder, etc.

Symptoms of arterial hypertension

Increased blood pressure more than 140/90 mm Hg. – This is not the only symptom of arterial hypertension. Increased pressure causes response changes in the cardiovascular system and other organs. At first, these changes are compensatory, then (in the absence of treatment) lead to decompensation.

A patient with arterial hypertension may be disturbed by the following symptoms:

  • headache,
  • decreased vision
  • noise in ears,
  • dizziness,
  • increased urination
  • frequent nighttime urination,
  • interruptions in the work of the heart, edema, etc.

Arterial hypertension in the absence of treatment leads to vascular changes in all organs and systems, which negatively affects their work.

Why is arterial hypertension dangerous?

This condition increases the risk of:

  • strokes,
  • myocardial infarction,
  • rupture of aneurysms (if any), etc.

Diagnostics

Arterial hypertension is diagnosed if the patient has a persistent increase in pressure over 140/90 mm Hg.

To start the earliest possible treatment of complications of the disease, it is necessary to diagnose them in a timely manner. For this purpose, the patient is assigned consultations:

  • ophthalmologist,
  • cardiologist,
  • neurologist.

The following types of research are also carried out:

  • Ultrasound of vessels (brachiocephalic, renal),
  • ECG,
  • Ultrasound of the heart,
  • MRI of the brain (especially with episodes of acute cerebrovascular accident in history),
  • Ultrasound of the kidneys.

If changes have been identified in the kidneys, the patient is advised to additionally consult a urologist.

Arterial hypertension treatment

Adequate antihypertensive therapy is selected for the patient.

In essential hypertension, the general principles of treatment are as follows:

  • constant pressure control,
  • prevention of complications,
  • balanced diet,
  • regular physical activity (the type of exercise is agreed with the therapist.)

In secondary hypertension, treatment is directed at the cause of the syndrome.

Posted by Dr.Pressurs in Blood pressure