The main symptoms and first aid for hypertensive crisis

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A huge number of people on the planet suffer from high blood pressure today. Often this condition leads to chronic hypertension. By itself, it does not pose a serious danger, but it can become a risk factor. Much more dangerous is the so-called hypertensive crisis. It is not only characterized by a sharp increase in blood pressure, but also indicates circulatory insufficiency.

Let’s understand the symptoms of a hypertensive crisis, the features of first aid for it, treatment and prevention.


The pathological condition occurs with arterial hypertension. Also concomitant factors of its development are:

  • coronary heart disease
  • injuries
  • diabetes
  • atherosclerosis
  • hyperthyroidism
  • strokes
  • nephropathy of pregnant women

To provoke a hypertensive crisis can: alcohol abuse, hormonal balance disorders, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.

The development of dangerous conditions is subject to people who:

  • lead a sedentary lifestyle and suffer from excess weight
  • abuse coffee and caffeinated energy drinks
  • have a lack of rest
  • experience increased physical activity
  • smoke
  • use narcotic substances

Risk groups also include people with osteochondrosis, neurological pathologies, taking certain medications. Women in the menopausal period are also susceptible to hypertensive crises.

Important! To find out if you are at risk, you need to visit a doctor. He will conduct an examination and answer your questions regarding the predisposition to both high blood pressure and its sharp jumps.

The main symptoms of a hypertensive crisis

High blood pressure is not the only sign of a dangerous condition.

Also, patients complain of:

  • dizziness and headache
  • unpleasant sensations in the heart area
  • tachycardia
  • bradycardia (in rare cases)
  • trembling in the body
  • increased sweating
  • weakness
  • shortness of breath

Many people during a hypertensive crisis experience a sense of anxiety and fear. Some have passing visual disturbances (flickering of flies, shroud, etc.),. Others at the time of the attack may notice involuntary movements with their eyes. In some cases, there are blurred consciousness, nausea and vomiting, convulsions.

Directly during the attack, the blood parameters also change. The indicators of leukocytes, ESR, protein in the urine may increase.


If, at the appearance of the first symptoms of a hypertensive crisis, first aid is not provided to a person, it is possible to develop such dangerous conditions as deterioration of cerebral circulation, kidney and liver conditions and damage to other organs. These complications are a consequence of depriving tissues of the oxygen they need for full functioning.

After hypertensive crises , development is possible:

  • stroke
  • Parkinson’s
  • disease liver dysfunction pulmonary
  • embolism cerebral
  • edema
  • CHD (coronary heart disease)

Also, an acute pathological condition can lead to a decrease in intelligence, paralysis, visual disturbances, acute renal failure, ventricular hypertrophy of the heart, etc. Fairly mild consequences of crises undergoing correction are constant headaches, systemic dizziness.

Important! The main danger of the condition is that it can cause death!

First aid

Immediately you need to call an ambulance. After that, you should try to lower your blood pressure at least a little. To do this, you need to take several deep breaths and exhalations. It is important to lie down. Any physical activity (even simple walking) is unacceptable. A compress with ice can be applied to the back of the head.

It is impossible to water a person in a state of hypertensive crisis! This can provoke vomiting and increase blood pressure. If a person is wearing tight clothes, it is better to take them off to facilitate breathing or to unbutton them in the throat and chest area. Also, if possible, it is necessary to provide him with access to fresh air. For a number of reasons, during a hypertensive crisis, the patient may suffer from chills, in order to eliminate this symptom as part of first aid, you can wrap your feet with a warm blanket.

What information should be provided to medical personnel?

  1. How long has the patient been suffering from hypertension
  2. Standard blood pressure readings
  3. Chronic diseases (if any)
  4. What medications does the patient take
  5. Duration of the attack

It should be understood that the strategy of further assistance largely depends on the completeness and objectivity of the data received by the doctor.

Important! Even if the patient has become better by the arrival of the ambulance or by the time he goes to the hospital, he should not refuse hospitalization. Only in the conditions of a medical institution is it possible to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis that allows you to detect the facts of complications. Only doctors can identify whether the condition of important organs has not affected.


In most cases, therapy is carried out at home. Hospitalization is usually carried out when the probability of damage to internal organs and systems is increased. First aid for symptoms of a hypertensive crisis in a hospital is aimed at reducing blood pressure. To do this, the necessary drugs (hypotensive).

are injected intravenously! Blood pressure is reduced gradually. Its sharp fall is no less dangerous for health and life than an increase. At the same time, the drugs do not act instantly. Also, the doctor may recommend taking diuretics. Additionally, antispasmodics, anti-anxiety and other drugs are often administered.

The funds are selected in accordance with the symptoms and concomitant diseases.


You should not immediately return to your usual life after a hypertensive crisis! It is necessary to undergo rehabilitation.

It will:

  • reduce the likelihood of a recurrence of the attack
  • to minimize the negative consequences of the pathological condition to
  • restore the normal functioning of all organs and systems

During rehabilitation, patients are advised to: Eat

  1. right. To do this, you need to reduce the amount of salt, carbohydrates and animal fats
  2. Observe a clear daily routine and pay sufficient attention to proper rest
  3. Reduce any emotional stress

In the first few days, they completely abandon physical activity. At the same time, with a general improvement in the patient’s condition, it is recommended to take small walks or swim. You should constantly take medications prescribed by a doctor.


It is important to understand that a hypertensive crisis is a symptom of disorders in the body, and not an independent disease. Therefore, it is very important that preventive measures are aimed specifically at preventing the development of major pathologies.

The doctor gives individual recommendations to each patient, but there are also general ones.

These include:

  1. Keeping a blood pressure diary. It is best to record morning, afternoon and evening readings in it
  2. Timely intake of medications prescribed by a doctor
  3. Regular consultations with a cardiologist
  4. Passing preventive medical examinations. They include not only an assessment of the general condition, but also blood pressure measurement, ECG removal. If necessary, the patient is prescribed another diagnosis
  5. A special diet. All foods that can lead to an increase in blood pressure should be excluded from the diet. It is recommended to refuse spicy and salty dishes, fast food, marinades and pickles, strong tea and coffee. The amount of liquid consumed is also strictly limited
  6. Taking vitamin preparations and mineral complexes. To maintain the health of the heart and blood vessels, the body needs calcium, potassium, magnesium, as well as vitamins of the main groups
  7. Eliminating the risk of overwork
  8. Giving up bad habits
  9. Moderate physical activity. They should definitely be coordinated with a cardiologist

If necessary, the patient should additionally consult with an endocrinologist, urologist, neurologist and other specialists of a narrow profile. This is due to the fact that a hypertensive crisis can be a symptom of pathologies of various organs and systems.